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4-06: Mental health problems: capacity to identify, refer, manage
4-11: Crisis response team and plans
8-05: Employee assistance programs
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Center for Mental Health in Schools.
Resources, technical assistance, and continuing education on topics related to mental health in schools, with a focus on barriers to learning and promotion of healthy development.
Center for School Mental Health Assistance
Supports schools and communities in the development of programs and provides leadership and technical assistance to advance effective interdisciplinary school-based mental health programs.
National Association of School Psychologists
US Department of Education
US Department of Education - Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)
US Department of Education - Office of Safe and Drug-Free Schools
Includes publications on effective violence and substance abuse prevention programs.
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7-06 - Adjustments to psychological trauma and loss

Make accommodations and/or adjustments for students during and after experiences of psychological trauma or loss.


Students who are coping with trauma or loss bear a heavy burden and may have difficulty focusing on academic work until they have dealt with trauma or loss issues.


Surveys of adolescents who have suffered trauma or loss indicate that they perceived their teachers to be helpful when they adjusted expectations about deadlines, rescheduled examinations, or extended due dates. Teachers were perceived as not helpful when they told students to focus on their schoolwork following trauma or loss or drew unnecessary attention to the students.

Accommodations for a student might include the following: (a) allowing the student time out of the classroom to meet with the school counselor, nurse, psychologist or social worker, (b) extending due dates for assignments and rescheduling examinations, (c) providing classroom discussion appropriate to the situation, and (d) acting discreetly, as necessary.

Take school-wide actions when many students share a sense of loss or of trauma. Make all students aware that doors are open for communication. Invite the school or district crisis team to the site so that they may identify strategies to help students who are experiencing loss. Be sure teachers have ready access to those strategies. Ensure that staff has easy access to lists of mental health resources in the school, district and community. Teachers and other staff coordinate their efforts as they identify and offer accommodations to students.


American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (1998). Practice parameters for the assessment and treatment of children and adolescents with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psych. 1998; 37(10 Suppl):4S-26S.

Brock S, Lazarus P, Jimerson S. Best Practices in School Crisis Prevention and Intervention. Bethesda, MD. National Association of School Psychologists. 2002.

Dwyer K, Osher D, Warger C. Early Warning, Timely Response: A Guide to Safe Schools. Washington, DC: US Department of Education; 1998.

Gray RE. The role of school counselors with bereaved teenagers: with and without peer support groups. School Counselor. 1998;35:185-193.

Hoagwood K, Erwin HD. Effectiveness of school-based mental health services for children: a 10-year research review. J Child Fam Studies. 1997;6:435-451.

Minke K, Bear G, eds. Preventing School Problems - Promoting School Success. Washington, DC. National Association of School Psychologists; 2000.

Nader K, Pynoos R. School disaster: Planning and initial interventions. J Social Behav Personality. 1993;8:299-320.

National Institute of Mental Health. Helping children and adolescents cope with violence and disasters. NIH Publication No. 01-3518, Bethesda MD, 2001.

Pfefferbaum B, Call JA, Sconzo GM. Mental health services for children in the first two years after the 1995 Oklahoma City terrorist bombing. Psychiatr Services. 1999;50:956-958.

Poland S, McCormick JS. Coping with Crisis: Lessons Learned - A Resource for Schools, Parents, and Communities. Longmont, CO: Sopris West; 1999:182-198.

Poland, S. , Pitcher, G. & Lazarus, P. Best practices in crisis intervention. In A. Thomas & J. Grimes, eds. Best practices in school psychology-III. Bethesda, MD: National Association of School Psychologists;1995: 445-458.

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