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0-03: Protection of student and staff confidentiality
0-08: Partnerships with community service providers
0-09: Inclusive process for policy development, communication
0-13: Evaluation of school health and safety programs
0-14: Qualifications of school health staff
4-06: Mental health problems: capacity to identify, refer, manage
4-07: Staff trained for emergencies
4-08: Child abuse reporting system
4-09: Health-related case management
4-10: Health records management system
4-11: Crisis response team and plans
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American Association for Suicide Prevention
Research, education and statistics regarding suicide.
American Association of Suicidology
Center for Mental Health in Schools.
Resources, technical assistance, and continuing education on topics related to mental health in schools, with a focus on barriers to learning and promotion of healthy development.
Center for School Mental Health Assistance
Supports schools and communities in the development of programs and provides leadership and technical assistance to advance effective interdisciplinary school-based mental health programs.
Children's Safety Network
Resources on child safety in school and on employed youth.
Keep Schools Safe
Information on violence and unintentional injury prevention in schools.
National Educational Service
For educators and other youth professionals to help foster environments where all youth succeed.
National Institute of Mental Health
Click onto "For the Public" to retrieve publication materials relating to mental health for children and adolescents, including materials on violence and suicide, including surgeon general reports.
National Mental Health Information Center
A web site for the United States Department of Health and Human Services' Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA); Links to the National Strategy for Suicide Prevention and other mental health resources.
Suicide Awareness: Voices of Education
Educates public on suicide prevention.
Suicide Prevention Resource Center
Technical assistance, training and information designed to strengthen suicide prevention, network and advance the national strategy for suicide prevention.
US Department of Education
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7-04 - Suicide prevention strategies

Actively prevent suicidal behavior by training staff and having programs that identify high-risk students and then link them to therapeutic and preventive community services.


Early identification and intervention offer the potential of preventing suicide. School personnel are in an excellent position to identify students at risk for suicide and, as a result, need to know both what to look for and how to respond.


Students who have mental disorders (e.g., depression, schizophrenia, alcoholism, substance abuse, conduct disorders), who have had a prior attempt of suicide, or who have been exposed to suicide behaviors have a heightened risk for suicide. Victimization, bullying, isolation, trauma, hopelessness, recent loss and having difficulty with issues of sexual identity are other risks for suicide. Teachers and other staff are well positioned to detect these risks and take action. School personnel must consider any talk about suicide a serious warning sign.

School protocols, when there is a suicide or attempted suicide, must focus on both the involved individual ( i.e., linkage to mental health services and monitoring of continued participation) and on the school population ( i.e., interventions to address stresses that are related to the exposure, identification of students at risk for copy behavior, and referrals, as necessary for evaluation and services.) Develop data collection and data analysis systems that provide for tracking cases, feedback to the school and the community and allow for evaluation of schools' prevention programs.

Appendix F and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines (14) describe factors indicative of increased risk for suicide, strategies that schools could adopt to prevent and confront these risks and methods of tracking incidents.


Barrios L. Special report. Federal activities addressing violence in schools. J Sch Health. 2000;70:119-140.

Bell CC, Clark DC. Adolescent suicide. Pediatr Clin North Am. 1998;45:365-380.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. School health guidelines to prevent unintentional injuries and violence. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2001;50(RR-22):1-73.

Davis J, Brods S: Suicide in J. Sandoval, ed. Handbook of Crisis Counseling Intervention and Prevention in the Schools. 2nd ed. Hillsdale, NY: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2001; 273-299.

Dwyer K, Osher D, Warger C. Early Warning, Timely Response: A Guide to Safe Schools. Washington, DC: US Department of Education; 1998.

Eggert LL, Thompson EA, Herting JR, Nicholas LJ. Reducing suicide potential among high-risk youth: tests of a school-based prevention program. Suicide & Life-Threatening Behavior. 1995;25:276-296.

Forjuoh SN, Zwi AB. Violence against children and adolescents. International perspectives. Pediatr Clin North Am. 1998;45:415-426.

Gilliland BE, James RK. Crisis Intervention Strategies. 3rd ed. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks Cole; 1997.

Kalafat J, Elias M. An evaluation of a school-based suicide awareness intervention. Suicide & Life-Threatening Behavior. 1994;24:224-233.

King RA, Schwab-Stone M, Flisher AJ, Greenwald S, Kramer RA, Goodman SH, Lahey BB, Shaffer D, Gould MS. Psychosocial and risk behavior correlates of youth suicide attempts and suicidal ideation. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2001 Jul;40(7):837-46.

Lieberman R, Davis J. Suicide Intervention. In: Brock S, Lazarus P, Jimerson S. Best Practices in School Crisis Prevention and Intervention. Bethesda, MD. National Association of School Psychologists; 2002.

Mazza J. School-based suicide prevention programs: are they effective? School Psychology Review. 1997;26:382-396.

McCarthy AR. Healthy Teens: Facing the Challenges of Young Lives. 3rd ed. Birmingham, MI: Bridge Communications, Inc.; 2000.

National Institute of Justice. Conflict resolution for school personnel: an interactive school safety training tool (CD-ROM). Washington, DC: US Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs: 2002.

Shaffer D, Craft L. Methods of adolescent suicide prevention. J Clin Psychiatry. 1999;60 Suppl 2:70-76; 113-116.

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