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2-06: Functional knowledge of health and safety issues
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American Lung Association
Ozone and the Air Quality Index: A Program Resource Guide
Environmental Protection Agency
Environmental Protection Agency
For information on daily air quality across the United States.
Environmental Protection Agency - "Tools for Schools" including renovations
Environmental Protection Agency - Additional School-Specific Matters and Resources
Environmental Protection Agency - Exhaust Fumes
Environmental Protection Agency - School Buses
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6-10 - Live animals in school environment

Limit exposure to live animals in order to protect the health and safety of students and staff.


Students in schools should not have access to live animals that may pose a threat to safety and health.


Exposure to live animals places students at risk for animal bites, allergic reactions, and infection from animal vectors. Furred and feathered animals are common triggers for students with allergies and asthma. Reptiles are frequent carriers of infectious diseases. Access to all animals on school property should be limited, so that no animal roams freely.

Animals should be eliminated from regular classrooms. Animals necessary for certain curricula, such as biology or animal husbandry/vocational-agricultural programs, should be carefully confined in suitable, sanitary, self-contained enclosures appropriate to the size of the animal. Staff must be responsible for ensuring that enclosures are kept in a sanitary condition. Prior to introducing any animals into the classroom, school staff must verify that students and school personnel have no known allergy to that animal and that animals are free from any diseases or parasites. Animals must present no physical danger to students and contact should be limited to instructional purposes. Students must be fully supervised during all points of animal contact.


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Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Dog-bite-related fatalities-United States, 1995-1996. MMWR. 1997;46:463-467.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. School health guidelines to prevent unintentional injuries and violence. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2001;50(RR-22):1-73.

National Science Teachers Association. Guidelines for Responsible Use of Animals in the Classroom. Arlington VA: National Science Teachers Association; 1991. Available at:

National Science Teachers Association. Safety in the Elementary Science Classroom. Arlington, Va.: National Science Teachers Association; 1997.

Patrick GR, O'Rourke KM: Dog and cat bites: epidemiologic analyses suggest different prevention strategies. Public Health Rep. 1998 113(3): 252-257.

Quinlan KP, Sacks JJ, Kresnow M. Exposure to and compliance with pediatric injury prevention counseling-United States, 1994. Pediatrics. 1998;102:e55. Available at:

Robinson RA, Pugh RN. Dogs, zoonoses and immunosuppression. J R Soc Health. 2002 122(2)95-98.

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