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4-02: Supervision of clinical activities
4-07: Staff trained for emergencies
4-20: Individualized health services plans
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National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (US Department of Transportation)
Information on child safety restraint systems, training for child passenger safety technicians, and on laws and regulations governing transporting children. The "Child Passenger Safety" pages include information on transporting children with disabilities, and school bus safety.
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6-06 - Safety on out-of-school trips

Develop and implement plans to address the safety of students on school-sponsored, out-of-school trips (field trips). Policy should address: supervision of students, transportation to sites, student-specific health information, equipment and expertise required to implement students' individualized health service plans (including administration of medication), and behavioral expectations of students and supervisors.


Schools are responsible for students and their safety at any school-sponsored event, on or off school grounds.


Adequate supervision of students must be planned in advance of each trip and must take into consideration students' health, mental health, and safety needs. This includes having students accompanied by staff who are trained to administer medications, perform first-aid, and observe for health problems (for example, recognizing symptoms of asthma or observing that a student with diabetes has eaten lunch). Arrangements to transport health-related equipment must be made. A responsible adult on the trip should have a copy of each student's emergency information card. Information must include emergency contact information and key health information that will be needed in an emergency.

Encourage the use of school vehicles driven by appropriately trained and licensed school employees, not private vehicles, when the school district provides transportation to school-sponsored events. When private vehicles must be used, require operators to be licensed drivers of the type of vehicle driven, carry insurance for occupants of their vehicles, require occupants to wear safety belts, and follow state regulations for inspection and registration for the vehicle.

Behavioral expectations may include, for example, making one's location known at all times; avoidance of tobacco, alcohol, and illicit drugs (see Guideline 6-11, Guideline 6-12); and housing males and females in separate sleeping quarters.


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. School health guidelines to prevent unintentional injuries and violence. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2001;50(RR-22):1-73.

Hootman J, Schwab NC, Gelfman MHB, Gregory EK, Pohlman KJ. School nursing practice: clinical performance issues. In: Schwab ND, Gelfman MHB, eds. Legal Issues in School Health Services. North Branch, MN: Sunrise River Press; 2001:167-230.

National Association of School Nurses. Position Statement: Out-of-School Education Field Trips and Camps. Scarborough, ME: National Association of School Nurses; 2000. Available at:

National Association of School Nurses. Position Statement: School Nurse Role in Emergency Preparedness. Scarborough, ME: National Association of School Nurses; 2001. Available at:

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