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Introduction
Table of Contents
Appendices  
Subject Index  
Glossary  
References
Related Links
About the Authors
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2-06: Functional knowledge of health and safety issues
3-03: Physical activity and special needs
3-05: Ample resources for entire class in physical education
3-09: Physical education and safety curriculum
3-10: Use of protective equipment in sports
5-02: Standards for food service equipment, practices
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Children's Safety Network
Resources on child safety in school and on employed youth.
Keep Schools Safe
Information on violence and unintentional injury prevention in schools.
National Institute of Standards and Technology
National Resource Center for Safe Schools
North American Guidelines for Children's Agricultural Tasks
For an example of defining developmentally appropriate, which has defined developmental readiness for children to be able to engage in a variety of specific agricultural chores.
Occupational Safety and Health Administration
The Catalyst
A site developed for secondary school teachers as a resource for finding relevant information for teaching chemistry. Includes safety measures to be taken in biology, chemistry, and physics classes.
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6-05 - Classroom safety: equipment, facilities, student conduct
 

Teach students safety practices, ensure safe conduct, and enforce use of applicable safety guards and protection devices in classrooms. Provide appropriate supervision, safe equipment, and safe facilities. Apply these principles to vocational education settings, to youth employment situations, and to all art, science, food preparation, industrial arts, and shop classes.

   
Rationale
 

Safety education, safe practices, and supervision, when enforced through school policy in science and shop classes, art courses, classes where there is food preparation, and vocational education classes, will prevent serious injuries to staff and students.

   
Commentary
 

A coordinated effort to review safety needs as well as to revise and maintain safety protocols in these classes should be implemented through representatives from vocational education, science, and art. Class safety rules should be developed and taught to students. Students should sign a contract at the beginning of the term agreeing to follow the rules. Provide adequate supervision. Inspection checklists should be used in shop and vocational education classes.

Chemicals are of particular concern in classrooms. It is recommended that chemicals be stored by their chemical family rather than alphabetically to minimize dangerous interactions. Dispose of chemicals that are on the banned substance list, are out of date, or are in unlabeled containers. Material safety data sheets (MSDS) should be available to staff and students for each chemical stored and/or used in the school setting.

Certification programs, continuing education, and educational supplies that pertain to the prevention of injuries in these classes are available (84). A publication of the American Chemical Society (12) and an Internet site called "The Catalyst" (a resource for science teachers) provide detailed safety information pertaining to chemistry, biology, and physics in the school classroom. Guidelines on work space per student, eye protection, fire prevention, and protection from injuries in physics experiments that involve electricity, motion, energy, heat, and sound are available at this website. Inspections by the US Occupational Safety and Health Administration may be considered in order to verify compliance with meeting safety standards for staff.

Youth who are employed, particularly those who work as part of school-to-work programs or vocational training, require knowledge of safety practices (Guideline 2-06) and the skills to recognize and avoid unsafe work-site situations. Safety issues for students related to sport and physical activity are covered in Guideline 3-05 and Guideline 3-09.

   
REFERENCES
 

American Academy of Pediatrics, Committee on Injury and Poison Prevention and Committee on Community Health Services. Prevention of agricultural injuries among children and adolescents. Pediatrics. 2001;108:1016-1019.

American Chemical Society, Committee on Chemical Safety. Safety in Academic Chemistry Laboratories. Washington, DC: American Chemical Society; 1995.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. School health guidelines to prevent unintentional injuries and violence. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2001;50(RR-22):1-73.

Children's Safety Network. Protecting Working Teens: A Public Health Resource Guide. Newton, MA: Children's Safety Network; 1995.

Dean RA, Gerlovich JA. Safety in the Elementary Science Classroom. Washington, DC: National Science Teachers Association; 1997.

Knight S, Junkins EP Jr, Lightfoot AC, Cazier CF, Olson LM. Injuries sustained in shop class. Pediatrics. 2000;106:10-13.

Laflamme L, Eilert-Petersson E. School-injury patterns: a tool for safety planning at the school and community levels. Accid Anal Prev. 1998; 30:277-283.

Massachusetts Department of Public Health. Teens at Work: Injury Surveillance and Intervention Project, Occupational Health Surveillance Program; 2000. Available at: http://www.state.ma.us/dph/bhsre/ohsp/ohsp.htm.

McCann M. Art Safety Procedures: A Health and Safety Manual for Art Schools and Art Departments. New York: Center for Safety in the Arts; 1992.

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Promoting Safe Work for Young Workers: A Community-based Approach. Cincinnati, OH: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health; 1999.

National Research Council and Institute of Medicine, Committee on the Health and Safety Implications of Child Labor. Protecting Youth at Work: Health, Safety, and Development of Working Children and Adolescents in the United States. Washington, DC: National Academy Press; 1998.

National Science Teachers Association. Safety in the Elementary Science Classroom. Arlington, Va.: National Science Teachers Association; 1997.

Posner M. Preventing School Injuries: A Comprehensive Guide for School Administrators, Teachers, and Staff. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press; 2000.

 
          
 
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