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Introduction
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Action research
A systematic process that teachers and others can use by to carefully study their actions and problems. Systematic self reflection can guide, correct, and evaluate future professional decisions and actions. In essence professionals research their own practice in their professional setting. ( 0-16 )

Allergen
Any substance, such as pollen, that can cause an allergy. ( 6-13, 8-01 )

Anabolic steroid
A synthetic hormone that promotes storage of protein in the body and promotes growth of tissues. Sometimes used by athletes to increase muscle size and strength. ( 3-09 )

Anorexia nervosa
A psychiatric and physiological disorder characterized by an abnormal fear of becoming obese, a distorted self-image, a persistent unwillingness to eat, and severe weight loss. It is often accompanied by self-induced vomiting, excessive exercise, malnutrition, loss of regular menstrual periods and other physiological changes. ( 3-09 )

Anticipatory guidance
Explanations to parents, older children and adolescents about the changes likely to occur in a child’s behaviors, exposures and risks as growth and development proceed. ( 4-27 )

Automated External Defribrillator (AED)
A device that used administers an electric shock through the chest wall to the heart to treat those having a cardiac arrest. Built-in computers assess the patient's heart rhythm, judge whether defibrillation is needed, and then administer the shock. ( 4-07, 6-22 )

Bioaerosols
An airborne dispersion of particles, where the particles contain bacteria, viruses, dust mites, fungi (spores or hyphae), or contain other biological entities or parts of biological entities. ( 6-14 )

Bloode-borne pathogen
Any organism (bacteria, virus, etc..) that can cause disease is a pathogen. Blood-borne pathogens are those found in blood itself as well as on blood-soiled bandages, needles and other items that contain blood. ( 6-15, 8-02 )

Building commissioning
Putting a building through a trial run before opening it for occupants. ( 6-03 )

Bulimia
An eating disorder which is characterized by self-induced vomiting after eating. ( 3-09 )

Cardiac disorder
Disorders that pertain to the heart. Cardiac disorders of school age children are often structural abnormalities of the heart that have existed from birth. ( 3-03 )

Case management
Also referred to as ‘care coordination’ or ‘care management’, case management is the process of helping an individual or family explore options and services based on a review of a person’s or family’s needs, then helping the family or individual plan and implement care. A case manager plans, implements, coordinates, monitors and/or evaluates the provision of all the selected services. ( 4-03 )

Cervical Spine
The part of the spine at the level of an individual’s neck. Injuries to the cervical spine are rare, but catastrophic if mishandled. Protection of the cervical spine after an injury requires trained individuals to immobilize head and neck prior to moving the injured person. ( 4-07 )

Chronic conditions
An illness or medical condition that lasts over a long period and sometimes causes a long-term change in the body. ( 4-16 )

CLIA or Clinical laboratory improvement amendment
All laboratory testing (except research) performed on humans in the U.S., including those done in out-patient settings such as school-based health centers, is regulated through the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA). The objective of CLIA is to ensure quality laboratory testing
Communicable diseases: A disease that can pass from one person to another. Contagious diseases. ( 4-32 )

Communicable diseases
A disease that is able to be passed from one person, animal, or organism to another. ( 4-22, 4-24, 6-02, 6-16, 8-01 )

Conduct disorders
A psychiatric diagnosis for a repetitive and persistent pattern of behavior in which a child either violates basic rights of others or violates age-appropriate societal norms. The onset is before age 18 and behaviors include (a) aggressive conduct that threatens physical harm to people or animals, (b) non-aggressive conduct that causes property damage, (c) deceitfulness or theft, and (d) serious violations of rules. ( 7-04 )

Creatine
A compound made by the body and used to store energy in cells of muscle tissue. Internal creatine supplies energy for muscle contraction. It is available as a dietary supplement (animal sources). There is scientific evidence to support creatine’s ability to somewhat enhance muscular performance, with claims escalated well beyond science. Safety of long-term creatine supplementation among youth remains unknown. ( 3-09 )

Cryptococcosis
A fungal infection that can occur when people inhale the spores usually introduced into the air via contaminated bird droppings. Infection with Cryptococcus results in inflammation of the brain, and sometimes the lungs, kidneys, prostate gland, bones, skin or liver. ( 6-14 )

Cystic fibrosis
A hereditary disease of the exocrine glands (glands that secrete), characterized by the production of abnormally viscous (thick and sticky) mucus by the affected glands and frequent respiratory infections and impaired digestion. It usually develops during early childhood and affects mainly the pancreas (digestive system), respiratory system, and sweat glands. ( 3-03 )

Dental home
A primary dental care provider system that is accessible, continuous, comprehensive, family centered, coordinated, compassionate, and culturally effective. ( 1-03, 4-29 )

Dental sealants
A plastic coating placed in the pits and grooves of molar teeth found to reduce dental cavities by 60%. ( 4-12 )

Diuretic
A substance or drug that increases volume of urination and can cause dehydration. Such substances are sometimes abused by athletes to modify weight. ( 3-09 )

Down Syndrome
A congenital disorder, caused by the presence of an extra 21st chromosome. The affected person has mild to moderate mental retardation, short stature, and a flattened facial profile. Also called Trisomy 21. ( 3-03 )

Epinephrine
A hormone secreted as a response to physical or mental stress. Sometimes administered as a medication to stimulate heart action and increase blood pressure, often used to treat severe allergic reactions (anaphylactic shock). Also called adrenaline. ( 4-21, 6-22 )

Family Resource Center
A location that provides primary prevention services for families, such as: parent education, information and referral to local health and social services, and collaborative work with community development initiatives. Some also provide home visiting, early childhood services, parent/child play groups and opportunities for personal and family development. ( 1-04, 1-05 )

Fluoride rinse
A solution used to prevent dental caries. A person places some of the solution in the mouth, swishes, and spits the solution into the sink. ( 4-12 )

Fluoride varnish
A compound containing high-concentrations of fluoride that dental care providers apply to teeth and leave for hours, releasing fluoride into the smooth surface areas of the teeth until it is brushed off after a few hours. Found to be very protective against cavities. ( 4-12 )

FMNV/Foods of Minimal Nutritional Value, as stated in the National School Lunch Program
A list of foods published by the U.S. Department of Agriculture that have few nutrients. Carbonated sodas, chewing gum, hard candies, licorice candy, and marshmallows are examples of items on this list. FMNV/Foods of Minimal Nutritional Value, as stated in the National School Lunch Program ( 5-09 )

Frostbite
An injury to the skin that results from prolonged exposure to moderate cold or brief exposure to extreme cold. When skin is exposed to the cold, blood vessels in the skin clamp down. The decreased blood flow to the skin causes fluid in and around skin cells to develop ice crystals. Areas of the body most prone to frostbite are fingers, toes, hands, feet, nose, ears, and cheeks.

Gastrostomy tube
A feeding tube inserted into a permanent opening in a person’s abdominal wall and stomach. The gastrostomy or permanent opening is created surgically for persons whose intake of food by mouth is not possible or is inadequate to support a healthy weight. ( 4-21 )

Glucagon
A hormone produced by the pancreas that stimulates an increase in blood sugar levels. As a medication for a person with diabetes, it is injected to rapidly and safely increase blood sugar in urgent situations due to too much insulin. ( 4-21, 6-22 )

Hantavirus
Any of a group of viruses carried by rodents that cause fever, accompanied by internal bleeding, low blood pressure, shock and severe respiratory infections in humans. ( 6-14 )

Heimlich maneuver
An emergency technique used to eject an object, such as food, from the trachea of a choking person. The technique employs a firm upward thrust just below the rib cage to force air from the lungs. ( 4-07 )

Hepatitis B
An infection of the liver that is caused by a virus, is transmitted by contaminated blood or blood products, by sexual contact with an infected person, or by the use of contaminated needles and instruments. Also called serum hepatitis. ( 8-02 )

Histoplasmosis
A fungal infection that can occur when people inhale spores usually introduced into the air via contaminated bird droppings. Infection with Histoplasma is often accompanied by no symptoms or some mild respiratory symptoms, such as a cough, fever, and/or tiredness. ( 6-14 )

Hoya lifts
A small crane with a swing-like cloth seat used to transfer heavy students with disabilities who are not able to stand/walk (e.g., can be used to transfer a student from a chair to a changing table, onto buses, or into pools.) ( 8-01 )

Hypoallergenic
Having a decreased tendency to provoke an allergic reaction. Substances unlikely to cause an allergic reaction. ( 6-03 )

Hypothermia
A condition when the body cannot generate sufficient heat to maintain its functions; defined as a body temperature of less than 35°C or 95°F.

Individualized Education Program (IEP)
A written document that describes the educational plan for a student with a disability. ( 4-20 )

Individualized Family Services Plan (IFSP)
Similar to an Individualized Education Program (see above) but applies to students with disabilities who are infants or toddlers and defines the family, not only the student, as the recipient of services. All medical and health services that a student requires are to be defined in the IFSP, even if provision of one or more of these service falls outside of the school district’s obligations (IDEA law; Sec. 303.344(e)). ( 4-20 )

Individualized Health Services Plan
A written plan that outlines the safe delivery of health services by a school or school district to the student. Students whose health status requires professional nursing observation or intervention, administration of procedures, or the use of a health device need an IHSP. ( 4-20 )

Insulin pump
A portable device for people with diabetes that injects insulin at programmed intervals in order to regulate blood sugar levels. ( 4-19 )

Integrated Pest Management (IPM)
Pest and environmental information and pest control methods intended to prevent pest damage economically and with little hazard to people, property and the environment. ( 6-13 )

Legionella disease
( 6-14 )

Legionnaire’s Disease
A bacterial pneumonia caused by Legionella pneumophila distributed in aerosols from water sources such as cooling towers, evaporative condensers, whirlpools, shower heads, faucets, and hot water tanks.

Lethargy
A condition of indifference with abnormal drowsiness or stupor. ( 4-22 )

Lockdown
Students and staff are secured in place and access to and from the building is denied. ( 4-11, 6-23 )

Malaria
An infectious disease caused by a protozoan infection of red blood cells characterized by cycles of chills, fever, and sweating. The protozoan is transmitted to humans by the bite of an infected female anopheles mosquito. ( 6-14 )

Malocclusion
Faulty contact between the upper and lower teeth when the jaw is closed. ( 4-12 )

Medical home
A medical care system for infants, children, adolescents and their families that is accessible, continuous, comprehensive, family centered, coordinated, compassionate, and culturally effective. Well-trained physicians who provide primary care deliver care directly or indirectly by and help to manage and facilitate essentially all aspects of pediatric care. ( 1-03 )

Medically fragile
A condition when a student’s medical condition is unstable and as a result requires ongoing or frequent observation by persons skilled to recognize sudden changes in condition and/or who are skilled to respond to that change. A student whose airway is prone to sudden blockage, or who requires oxygen would usually be considered medically fragile. ( 4-03 )

Metered dose inhaler
One of many inhalation devices used to inhale medication – often for asthma. Metered dose inhalers are compact, portable devices that deliver consistent doses. Alternate popular and portable ways to deliver inhaled medications are through Dry Powdered Inhalers (devices that break a capsule releasing a dry powder that is then inhaled). ( 4-21 )

Nebulizer
Electrically-powered machines that convert a liquid medication to a fine spray; Used to deliver inhaled asthma medications. Portable devices are available, but none are compact. ( 4-21 )

Nitril or Nitrile (gloves)
A tested material for gloves that is less likely than latex to cause allergic reactions and has been found to be superior to neoprene or vinyl gloves for medical purposes. ( 6-13, 6-15 )

Paraprofessionals
Trained workers who are academically trained in a given profession but assist a trained professional in providing certain services, following job-related training. ( 4-05, 4-10 )

Peak flow meter
A simple device to measure airway restriction. It can be used at home or school to help predict asthma episode, often before symptoms appear. Peak flow values of 50-80% of an individual’s personal best indicate a moderate asthma attack, while values below 50% indicate a severe attack. ( 4-21 )

Peer mediation
A process in which two or more people involved in a dispute meet with another student who is trained in the role of mediator to work out a mutually acceptable solution to their problem. Many communities have mediation centers that provide this training. ( 7-05 )

Periodontal disease
Disease of the gums, the tissues encasing teeth. ( 4-12 )

Pertussis
The medical term for whooping cough. ( 4-14 )

Positive Predictive Value
(For screening tests), the proportion of individuals screened positive by the test who actually have the disease. ( 4-18 )

Positive youth development
An approach toward all youth that builds on their assets and their potential and helps to counter problems that may affect them. Examples of key elements include providing youth with safe and supportive environments, providing opportunities for youth to pursue their interests, and providing opportunities for youth to show they care about others and their society.

Postural drainage
Facilitation of the flow of secretions from various parts of the lung into the airways and throat so that they can be cleared and expelled from the lungs more easily by individuals as they assume various positions. Often required by students with Cystic Fibrosis and other lung diseases. Requires expertise and training to perform. ( 4-21 )

Process Evaluation
An investigation of the all the processes that occurred when delivering a program or service. It includes documentation and assessment of what actually occurred compared to a plan. ( 0-13 )

Quality Assurance
A process of monitoring and improving the quality of health services through enforcement of health and safety standards, technical assistance, and dissemination of new technology and methodologies. ( 0-13, 4-32 )

Risk communication
Interaction with the public regarding a potential health or safety risk. Communication is bi-directional: the public needs to understand the science behind the risk, and information is often needed from the community to assess the risk. ( 6-02 )

Rubella
The medical term for German measles. ( 4-14 )

Salmonella
Bacteria that cause food poisoning, typhoid fever, and other diseases in humans and domestic animals. ( 6-14 )

Schizophrenia
A psychotic disorder marked by disconnection between thoughts, feelings, and actions (as in hallucinations and delusions); characterized by loss of contact with the environment and by noticeable deterioration in the level of functioning in everyday life. ( 7-04 )

Section 504 Plan
A written plan that describes accommodations to be made by a school or district for a student with a disabling condition that substantially limits a major life activity. It is an individualized plan that assures each student access to his/her education. The title refers to Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973. ( 4-20 )

Seizure disorder
Predisposition to sudden disruptions of the brain's normal electrical activity accompanied by altered consciousness, or other neurological and behavioral manifestations. Also known as epilepsy.

Sensitivity
(For a screening tests) The ability of a test to identify correctly all screened individuals who actually have the disease. ( 4-18 )

Service Learning
Programs that incorporate citizenship values into education by requiring students to perform community service. In some school districts, community service is a mandatory requirement for graduation. ( 2-08 )

Source Control Measures
Actions that eliminate or reduce the release of contamination from a known source. ( 6-03, 6-13 )

Spacer
A chamber placed between metered dose inhalers (see definition, above) of inhaled medication and the patient's mouth. Useful for children with asthma who cannot coordinate timing of their inhalation with the spray of the medication. As droplets of medication slow down and evaporate, spacers also allow for less direct impact of the medication on the lining of the mouth, minimizing some side effects. ( 4-19 )

Specificity
(For health screening tests). The ability of a test to correctly identify only non-diseased individuals of all those who actually do not have the disease. ( 4-18 )

Strep throat
An infection of the throat accompanied by fever and pain, caused by streptococcal bacteria. ( 4-22 )

Synthesis research
The study of numerous existing research reports in order to arrive at conclusions drawn from a combination of studies. ( 0-11 )

Toxoplasmosis
A disease caused by a sporozoan Toxoplasma when acquired after birth, characterized by fever, swollen lymph nodes, and lesions in the liver, heart, lungs, and brain. Can also affect unborn child. ( 4-21, 6-14 )

Tracheostomy suctioning
Removal of natural fluids that are secreted in the windpipe using a small vacuum-suctioned tube. A tracheostomy is the surgical formation of an opening through the neck and into the windpipe that allows the passage of air for people who cannot breathe adequately or at all through the nose and mouth. ( 4-07 )

Type 2 diabetes
The inability of cells to respond normally to insulin; once called adult-onset diabetes, it is increasingly prevalent in children and youth because of rising rates of obesity. ( 4-18 )

Universal precautions
The practice of treating the blood and body fluids of every patient as if they were infected with HIV, Hepatits B, or another bloodborne pathogen. Recommended precautions include using barriers such as nonporous gloves, goggles, and face shields, and careful handling and disposal of sharp medical instruments such as needles. ( 8-01 )

Urinary tract catheterization
Passage of a catheter (thin flexible tube) into the bladder. Required at regular intervals for individuals who cannot urinate normally. ( 4-21 )

Varicella
The medical term for chicken pox. ( 4-14 )

West Nile virus
A relatively newly emergent virus that primarily affects birds, but can be transmitted to humans through infected mosquitoes; Causes no symptoms in most individuals, flu-like symptoms in others, and serious brain inflammation on rare occasions. ( 6-14 )

   
      
 
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