A systematic process that teachers and others can use by
to carefully study their actions and problems. Systematic self reflection can
guide, correct, and evaluate future professional decisions and actions. In essence
professionals research their own practice in their professional setting.
Any substance, such as pollen, that can cause an allergy.
A synthetic hormone that promotes storage of protein in the
body and promotes growth of tissues. Sometimes used by athletes to increase
muscle size and strength.
A psychiatric and physiological disorder characterized by
an abnormal fear of becoming obese, a distorted self-image, a persistent unwillingness
to eat, and severe weight loss. It is often accompanied by self-induced vomiting,
excessive exercise, malnutrition, loss of regular menstrual periods and other
Explanations to parents, older children and adolescents
about the changes likely to occur in a child’s behaviors, exposures and
risks as growth and development proceed.
A device that used administers an
electric shock through the chest wall to the heart to treat those having a cardiac
arrest. Built-in computers assess the patient's heart rhythm, judge whether
defibrillation is needed, and then administer the shock.
An airborne dispersion of particles, where the particles contain bacteria, viruses, dust mites, fungi (spores or hyphae), or contain other biological entities or parts of biological entities.
Any organism (bacteria, virus, etc..) that can cause
disease is a pathogen. Blood-borne pathogens are those found in blood itself
as well as on blood-soiled bandages, needles and other items that contain blood.
Putting a building through a trial run before opening
it for occupants.
An eating disorder which is characterized by self-induced vomiting
Disorders that pertain to the heart. Cardiac disorders of
school age children are often structural abnormalities of the heart that have
existed from birth.
Also referred to as ‘care coordination’ or ‘care
management’, case management is the process of helping an individual or
family explore options and services based on a review of a person’s or
family’s needs, then helping the family or individual plan and implement
care. A case manager plans, implements, coordinates, monitors and/or evaluates
the provision of all the selected services.
The part of the spine at the level of an individual’s
neck. Injuries to the cervical spine are rare, but catastrophic if mishandled.
Protection of the cervical spine after an injury requires trained individuals
to immobilize head and neck prior to moving the injured person.
An illness or medical condition that lasts over a long period and sometimes causes a long-term change in the body.
All laboratory testing (except
research) performed on humans in the U.S., including those done in out-patient
settings such as school-based health centers, is regulated through the Clinical
Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA). The objective of CLIA is to ensure quality
Communicable diseases: A disease that can pass from one person to another. Contagious
A disease that is able to be passed from one person, animal, or organism to another.
A psychiatric diagnosis for a repetitive and persistent
pattern of behavior in which a child either violates basic rights of others
or violates age-appropriate societal norms. The onset is before age 18 and behaviors
include (a) aggressive conduct that threatens physical harm to people or animals,
(b) non-aggressive conduct that causes property damage, (c) deceitfulness or
theft, and (d) serious violations of rules.
A compound made by the body and used to store energy in cells of muscle
tissue. Internal creatine supplies energy for muscle contraction. It is available
as a dietary supplement (animal sources). There is scientific evidence to support
creatine’s ability to somewhat enhance muscular performance, with claims
escalated well beyond science. Safety of long-term creatine supplementation among
youth remains unknown.
A fungal infection that can occur when people inhale the spores
usually introduced into the air via contaminated bird droppings. Infection with
Cryptococcus results in inflammation of the brain, and sometimes the lungs,
kidneys, prostate gland, bones, skin or liver.
A hereditary disease of the exocrine glands (glands that
secrete), characterized by the production of abnormally viscous (thick and sticky)
mucus by the affected glands and frequent respiratory infections and impaired
digestion. It usually develops during early childhood and affects mainly the
pancreas (digestive system), respiratory system, and sweat glands.
A primary dental care provider system that is accessible, continuous,
comprehensive, family centered, coordinated, compassionate, and culturally effective.
A plastic coating placed in the pits and grooves of molar
teeth found to reduce dental cavities by 60%.
A substance or drug that increases volume of urination and can cause
dehydration. Such substances are sometimes abused by athletes to modify weight.
A congenital disorder, caused by the presence of an extra 21st
chromosome. The affected person has mild to moderate mental retardation, short
stature, and a flattened facial profile. Also called Trisomy 21.
A hormone secreted as a response to physical or mental stress. Sometimes
administered as a medication to stimulate heart action and increase blood pressure,
often used to treat severe allergic reactions (anaphylactic shock). Also called
A location that provides primary prevention services
for families, such as: parent education, information and referral to local health
and social services, and collaborative work with community development initiatives.
Some also provide home visiting, early childhood services, parent/child play
groups and opportunities for personal and family development.
A solution used to prevent dental caries. A person places some
of the solution in the mouth, swishes, and spits the solution into the sink.
A compound containing high-concentrations of fluoride that
dental care providers apply to teeth and leave for hours, releasing fluoride
into the smooth surface areas of the teeth until it is brushed off after a few
hours. Found to be very protective against cavities.
A list of foods published by the U.S. Department of Agriculture that
have few nutrients. Carbonated sodas, chewing gum, hard candies, licorice candy,
and marshmallows are examples of items on this list.
FMNV/Foods of Minimal Nutritional Value, as stated in the National School Lunch
An injury to the skin that results from prolonged exposure to moderate
cold or brief exposure to extreme cold. When skin is exposed to the cold, blood
vessels in the skin clamp down. The decreased blood flow to the skin causes
fluid in and around skin cells to develop ice crystals. Areas of the body most
prone to frostbite are fingers, toes, hands, feet, nose, ears, and cheeks.
A feeding tube inserted into a permanent opening in a person’s
abdominal wall and stomach. The gastrostomy or permanent opening is created
surgically for persons whose intake of food by mouth is not possible or is inadequate
to support a healthy weight.
A hormone produced by the pancreas that stimulates an increase in blood
sugar levels. As a medication for a person with diabetes, it is injected to rapidly
and safely increase blood sugar in urgent situations due to too much insulin.
Any of a group of viruses carried by rodents that cause fever, accompanied
by internal bleeding, low blood pressure, shock and severe respiratory infections
An emergency technique used to eject an object, such as
food, from the trachea of a choking person. The technique employs a firm upward
thrust just below the rib cage to force air from the lungs.
An infection of the liver that is caused by a virus, is transmitted
by contaminated blood or blood products, by sexual contact with an infected
person, or by the use of contaminated needles and instruments. Also called serum
A fungal infection that can occur when people inhale spores
usually introduced into the air via contaminated bird droppings. Infection with
Histoplasma is often accompanied by no symptoms or some mild respiratory symptoms,
such as a cough, fever, and/or tiredness.
A small crane with a swing-like cloth seat used to transfer heavy
students with disabilities who are not able to stand/walk (e.g., can be used to
transfer a student from a chair to a changing table, onto buses, or into pools.)
Having a decreased tendency to provoke an allergic reaction.
Substances unlikely to cause an allergic reaction.
A condition when the body cannot generate sufficient heat to maintain
its functions; defined as a body temperature of less than 35°C or 95°F.
A written document that describes the
educational plan for a student with a disability.
Similar to an Individualized Education Program (see above) but applies to students with disabilities who are infants or toddlers and defines the family, not only the student, as the recipient of services. All medical and health services that a student requires are to be defined in the IFSP, even if provision of one or more of these service falls outside of the school district’s obligations (IDEA law; Sec. 303.344(e)).
A written plan that outlines the safe delivery of health services by a
school or school district to the student. Students whose health status requires
professional nursing observation or intervention, administration of procedures,
or the use of a health device need an IHSP.
A portable device for people with diabetes that injects insulin
at programmed intervals in order to regulate blood sugar levels.
Pest and environmental information and pest
control methods intended to prevent pest damage economically and with little hazard
to people, property and the environment.
A bacterial pneumonia caused by Legionella pneumophila distributed in aerosols from water sources such as cooling towers, evaporative condensers, whirlpools, shower heads, faucets, and hot water tanks.
A condition of indifference with abnormal drowsiness or stupor.
Students and staff are secured in place and access to and from the building
An infectious disease caused by a protozoan infection of red blood
cells characterized by cycles of chills, fever, and sweating. The protozoan
is transmitted to humans by the bite of an infected female anopheles mosquito.
Faulty contact between the upper and lower teeth when the jaw is closed.
A medical care system for infants, children, adolescents and their families that is accessible, continuous, comprehensive, family centered, coordinated, compassionate, and culturally effective. Well-trained physicians who provide primary care deliver care directly or indirectly by and help to manage and facilitate essentially all aspects of pediatric care.
A condition when a student’s medical condition is unstable and as a result requires ongoing or frequent observation by persons skilled to recognize sudden changes in condition and/or who are skilled to respond to that change. A student whose airway is prone to sudden blockage, or who requires oxygen would usually be considered medically fragile.
One of many inhalation devices used to inhale medication
– often for asthma. Metered dose inhalers are compact, portable devices
that deliver consistent doses. Alternate popular and portable ways to deliver
inhaled medications are through Dry Powdered Inhalers (devices that break a
capsule releasing a dry powder that is then inhaled).
Electrically-powered machines that convert a liquid medication to a
fine spray; Used to deliver inhaled asthma medications. Portable devices are available,
but none are compact.
A tested material for gloves that is less likely
than latex to cause allergic reactions and has been found to be superior to
neoprene or vinyl gloves for medical purposes.
Trained workers who are academically trained in a given
profession but assist a trained professional in providing certain services,
following job-related training.
A simple device to measure airway restriction. It can be used
at home or school to help predict asthma episode, often before symptoms appear.
Peak flow values of 50-80% of an individual’s personal best indicate a moderate
asthma attack, while values below 50% indicate a severe attack.
A process in which two or more people involved in a dispute
meet with another student who is trained in the role of mediator to work out
a mutually acceptable solution to their problem. Many communities have mediation
centers that provide this training.
Disease of the gums, the tissues encasing teeth.
The medical term for whooping cough.
(For screening tests), the proportion of individuals
screened positive by the test who actually have the disease.
An approach toward all youth that builds on their
assets and their potential and helps to counter problems that may affect them.
Examples of key elements include providing youth with safe and supportive environments,
providing opportunities for youth to pursue their interests, and providing opportunities
for youth to show they care about others and their society.
Facilitation of the flow of secretions from various parts of
the lung into the airways and throat so that they can be cleared and expelled
from the lungs more easily by individuals as they assume various positions. Often
required by students with Cystic Fibrosis and other lung diseases. Requires expertise
and training to perform.
An investigation of the all the processes that occurred when
delivering a program or service. It includes documentation and assessment of what
actually occurred compared to a plan.
A process of monitoring and improving the quality of health
services through enforcement of health and safety standards, technical assistance,
and dissemination of new technology and methodologies.
Interaction with the public regarding a potential health or
safety risk. Communication is bi-directional: the public needs to understand the
science behind the risk, and information is often needed from the community to
assess the risk.
The medical term for German measles.
Bacteria that cause food poisoning, typhoid fever, and other diseases in humans and domestic animals.
A psychotic disorder marked by disconnection between thoughts,
feelings, and actions (as in hallucinations and delusions); characterized by
loss of contact with the environment and by noticeable deterioration in the
level of functioning in everyday life.
A written plan that describes accommodations to be made by a
school or district for a student with a disabling condition that substantially
limits a major life activity. It is an individualized plan that assures each student
access to his/her education. The title refers to Section 504 of the Rehabilitation
Act of 1973.
Predisposition to sudden disruptions of the brain's normal
electrical activity accompanied by altered consciousness, or other neurological
and behavioral manifestations. Also known as epilepsy.
(For a screening tests) The ability of a test to identify correctly
all screened individuals who actually have the disease.
Programs that incorporate citizenship values into education
by requiring students to perform community service. In some school districts,
community service is a mandatory requirement for graduation.
Actions that eliminate or reduce the release of contamination
from a known source.
A chamber placed between metered dose inhalers (see definition, above)
of inhaled medication and the patient's mouth. Useful for children with asthma
who cannot coordinate timing of their inhalation with the spray of the medication.
As droplets of medication slow down and evaporate, spacers also allow for less
direct impact of the medication on the lining of the mouth, minimizing some
(For health screening tests). The ability of a test to correctly
identify only non-diseased individuals of all those who actually do not have the
An infection of the throat accompanied by fever and pain, caused
by streptococcal bacteria.
The study of numerous existing research reports in order to
arrive at conclusions drawn from a combination of studies.
A disease caused by a sporozoan Toxoplasma when acquired after
birth, characterized by fever, swollen lymph nodes, and lesions in the liver,
heart, lungs, and brain. Can also affect unborn child.
Removal of natural fluids that are secreted in the windpipe
using a small vacuum-suctioned tube. A tracheostomy is the surgical formation
of an opening through the neck and into the windpipe that allows the passage of
air for people who cannot breathe adequately or at all through the nose and mouth.
The inability of cells to respond normally to insulin; once
called adult-onset diabetes, it is increasingly prevalent in children and youth
because of rising rates of obesity.
The practice of treating the blood and body fluids of every
patient as if they were infected with HIV, Hepatits B, or another bloodborne pathogen.
Recommended precautions include using barriers such as nonporous gloves, goggles,
and face shields, and careful handling and disposal of sharp medical instruments
such as needles.
Passage of a catheter (thin flexible tube) into
the bladder. Required at regular intervals for individuals who cannot urinate
The medical term for chicken pox.
A relatively newly emergent virus that primarily affects birds,
but can be transmitted to humans through infected mosquitoes; Causes no symptoms
in most individuals, flu-like symptoms in others, and serious brain inflammation
on rare occasions.